FUEL OIL

 
Kinematic viscosity @40ºC (ISO 3104)

DESCRIPTION

The viscosity corresponds to a physical property that characterizes the resistance of a given fluid to flow, as well as the shear deformation. It corresponds to the internal friction in fluids due to intermolecular interactions and this magnitude is generally a function of temperature. In addition to being a function of temperature, in particular, the kinematic viscosity is a function of the specific mass of the product.

 
ADVANTAGES

The present test makes it possible to determine the viscosity of the fuel by using a kinematic viscometer set at a specific temperature (40°C). The test is based on the international standard ISO 3104 and allows the determination of values in the range of 5-700 mm²/s (cSt) using the gauge used.

Apparent density @15ºC (ASTM D1298)

DESCRIPTION

It consists of a quick and non-destructive method for determining the amount of matter that is present per unit of volume.

 
ADVANTAGES

This test enables the determination of the density of any fuel, in the following range of values: 0.85 to 1.05 g/cm3.

Determination of ash content (ASTM D482)

DESCRIPTION

Ash content consists of the inorganic residue remaining after combustion of a fuel sample in the presence of air at a specific high temperature. It is a measure of the amount of non-combustible inorganic material (Va, Na, Ca, Mg, Zn, Pb, Fe, Ni). They may occur naturally or result from refining, or contamination during storage or distribution stages.

 
ADVANTAGES

It is a gravimetric method that allows estimating the tendency of the material to form mud or sediments.

Determination of carbon aromaticity index (CCAI) (ISO 8217 - Annex B)

DESCRIPTION

Estimation of CCAI value based on the knowledge of several fuel properties.

 
ADVANTAGES

It allows to avoid the use of fuels with kinematic viscosity ratios and low-density characteristics. Provides information about the ignition delay of the fuel and the quality of the referred ignition.

Determination of water content by the petroleum column method

DESCRIPTION

The water content of a fuel is determined in order to minimize the possibility of corrosion problems, especially in cases where the sulphur content is high, as well as to avoid influences on the calorific value of the fuel. Water increases the possibility of formation of emulsions which can cause problems in the nebulization of the product.

 
ADVANTAGES

A quick method that allows accurate quantification of the water content (on a scale from 0 to 1 v/v%).

Determination of the flash point by the Pensky-Martens closed cup method (ASTM D93) and flash point and fire point in an open cup (ASTM D92)

DESCRIPTION

The flash point corresponds to the lowest temperature at which fuel releases enough vapour to form a flammable mixture from an external source of heat. It is not sufficient for combustion to be maintained. In turn, the point of combustion is the lowest temperature at which the vapour of a sample will continue to burn for at least 5 seconds after ignition by an open flame.

 
ADVANTAGES

Determine the flash point and combustion point of a fuel sample using the open cup method (according to international standard) and closed cup combustion point (Pensky-Martens method). It assesses the range of applicability (combustion) of the fuel and assesses its danger.

Determination of total sediment content by hot filtration (ISO 10307 - part 1) or after ageing (ISO 10307 - part 2)

DESCRIPTION

Method of determination of total sediments in residual fuel having a maximum viscosity of 55 mm2/s at 100°C or for mixtures of distillates containing residues.

 
ADVANTAGES

It allows to determine accurately (through a gravimetric method after vacuum filtration, preceded or not of thermal or chemical ageing) the content of insoluble organic material or inorganic material up to a range of 0.50 wt% for residual fuel or 0.40% for distillates.

Determination of TAN or TBN value by titration (ASTM D974)

DESCRIPTION

Determination of acid or basic constituents in fuel samples. It is applicable for the determination of acids or bases whose dissociation constants in water are greater than 10-9.

 
ADVANTAGES

A quick method of determining the level of acidity/basicity of the fuel.

Determination of asphaltenes (heptane insoluble) in crude petroleum and petroleum products (IP143)

DESCRIPTION

Asphaltenes are heavy petroleum aromatic compounds with higher boiling points. They are formed by aromatic rings, having paraffin-like chains and high polarity. These compounds can cause serious problems during the production of oil. These problems include the formation of organic deposits in reservoirs and runoff lines, changes in rock wettability and the formation and stabilization of emulsions.

 
ADVANTAGES

A way for quantitatively determine the exact amount of these compounds in the sample (in a range from 0.50wt% to 30wt%).

Determination of asphaltenes (reference spot test)

DESCRIPTION

Asphaltenes are heavy petroleum aromatic compounds with higher boiling points. They are formed by aromatic rings, having paraffin-like chains and high polarity. These compounds can cause serious problems during the production of oil. These problems include the formation of organic deposits in reservoirs and runoff lines, changes in rock wettability and the formation and stabilization of emulsions.

 
ADVANTAGES

Quick method for determination of asphaltenes by comparison with normative tables.

Energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry: sulphur determination (ASTM D4294), critical metals and elements monitoring

DESCRIPTION

Test that allows to determine according to ASTM standard the sulphur content of the fuel. A test portion is placed in the beam emitted from an x-ray source. The excitation energy may be derived from a radioactive source, such as 55Fe, or from an x-ray tube. The resultant excited x-radiation is measured and the cumulative count is compared to a calibration chart representing the counts in relation to the sulphur content in mass percentage [%(m/m)], in a series of calibration samples covering the range of sulphur contents under examination. Additionally, the same equipment allows to determine elements like Ca, Fe, K, Ni and V at ppm levels.

 
ADVANTAGES

To enable the determination of the sulphur content present in samples of petroleum products, such as naphtha’s, types of gasoline, distillates, residual oil fuels, by the technique of x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (FRX) in a scale from ppm to wt% sulphur (5.00). It also allows to rapid monitor the presence of metals and elements in the sample.

Nature of the water (fresh or salt water)

DESCRIPTION

A quick method of determining the nature of the water present in the fuel, in particular specifying whether.

 
ADVANTAGES

Neglect the presence of salts present in the water that lead later to phenomena like corrosion or degradation of materials.

Determination of degree of compatibility of fuel oil mixtures (ASTM D2781)

DESCRIPTION

Determination of the degree of compatibility of a mixture of different fuel oil types.

 
ADVANTAGES

This is a good (expeditious and portable) way of measuring the compatibility of marine fuels, including waste and distillate fuel.

Standard test method for corrosiveness to copper from petroleum products by copper strip test (ASTM D130-18)

DESCRIPTION

Determine the degree of corrosiveness to copper of samples of petroleum products containing a steam pressure of not more than 124 kPa (18 psi) at 37.8 ° C.

 
ADVANTAGES

It allows for an accelerated ageing process to verify the presence of metal fuels damage equipment or materials by the oxidation-reduction reaction.

Determination of high heating value (HHV) and low heating value (ISO 8217 - Annex A)

DESCRIPTION

Heat of combustion corresponds to the amount of energy per unit mass (or volume, in the case of gases) released in the oxidation of a given fuel. The higher the calorific value, the greater the energy contained in the fuel.

 
ADVANTAGES

Determine the heat of combustion of the fuel under analysis and its applicability.

Free water and particulate contamination in distillate fuels (visual inspection procedures - ASTM D4176)

DESCRIPTION

Covers two procedures for estimating the presence of suspended free water and solid particulate contamination in distillate fuels having distillation end points below 400°C and an ASTM colour of 5 or less.

 
ADVANTAGES

Quick test for evaluating the presence or absence of water and particulate matter.

OILS

 
Kinematic viscosity @40ºC and 100°C (ISO 3104 and ISO 8217)

DESCRIPTION

The viscosity corresponds to a physical property that characterizes the resistance of a given fluid to flow, as well as the shear deformation. It corresponds to the internal friction in fluids due to intermolecular interactions and this magnitude is generally a function of temperature. In addition to being a function of temperature, in particular, the kinematic viscosity is a function of the specific mass of the product.

 
ADVANTAGES

The present test makes it possible to determine the viscosity of the oil by using a kinematic viscometer set at a specific temperature (40°C or 100ºC). The test is based on the international standard ISO 3104 and allows the determination of values in the range of 5-700 mm²/s (cSt) using the gauge used.

Viscosity index from kinematic viscosity at 40ºC and 100°C

DESCRIPTION

The viscosity index is a widely used and accepted measure of the variation in kinematic viscosity due to changes in the temperature of a petroleum product between 40ºC and 100°C. A higher viscosity index indicates a smaller decrease in kinematic viscosity with increasing temperature of the lubricant. The viscosity index is used in practice as a single number indicating temperature dependence of kinematic viscosity.

 
ADVANTAGES

From experimental data, it is able to quickly understand the tribological behaviour of the oil.

Apparent density @15ºC (ASTM D1298)

DESCRIPTION

It consists of a quick and non-destructive method for determining the amount of matter that is present per unit of volume.

 
ADVANTAGES

This test enables the determination of the density of any oil, in the following range of values: 0.85 to 1.05 g/cm3.

Determination of water content by the petroleum column method

DESCRIPTION

The water content of oil is determined in order to minimize the possibility of corrosion problems, especially in cases where the sulphur content is high, as well as to avoid influences on the calorific value of the oil. Water increases the possibility of formation of emulsions which can cause problems in the nebulization of the product.

 
ADVANTAGES

A quick method that allows accurate quantification of the water content (on a scale from 0 to 1 v/v%).

Determination of the flash point by the Pensky-Martens closed cup method (ASTM D93) and flash point and fire point in an open cup (ASTM D92)

DESCRIPTION

The flash point corresponds to the lowest temperature at which an oil releases enough vapour to form a flammable mixture from an external source of heat. It is not sufficient for combustion to be maintained. In turn, the point of combustion is the lowest temperature at which the vapour of a sample will continue to burn for at least 5 seconds after ignition by an open flame.

 
ADVANTAGES

Determine the flash point and combustion point of an oil sample using the open cup method (according to international standard) and closed cup combustion point (Pensky-Martens method). It assesses the range of applicability (combustion) of the oil and assesses its danger.

Determination of TAN or TBN value by titration (ASTM D974)

DESCRIPTION

Determination of acid or basic constituents in oil samples. It is applicable for the determination of acids or bases whose dissociation constants in water are greater than 10-9.

 
ADVANTAGES

A quick method of determining the level of acidity/basicity of the oil.

Energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry: sulphur determination (ASTM D4294), critical metals and elements monitoring

DESCRIPTION

Test that allows determining according to ASTM standard the sulphur content of the oil. A test portion is placed in the beam emitted from an x-ray source. The excitation energy may be derived from a radioactive source, such as 55Fe, or from an x-ray tube. The resultant excited x-radiation is measured and the cumulative count is compared to a calibration chart representing the counts in relation to the sulphur content in mass percentage [%(m/m)], in a series of calibration samples covering the range of sulphur contents under examination. Additionally, the same equipment allows determining elements like Ca, Fe, K, Ni and V at ppm levels.

 
ADVANTAGES

To enable the determination of the sulphur content present in samples by the technique of x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (FRX) on a scale from ppm to wt% sulphur (5.00). It also allows to rapid monitor the presence of metals and elements in the sample.

Insoluble content and degree of dispersion (reference spot test)

DESCRIPTION

Determination of the fraction of insoluble matter present in the sample of the oil under study by comparison with reference letters.

 
ADVANTAGES

It allows for an expeditious determination of the level of contamination of insoluble present in the sample, as well as the degree of dispersion of the samples (e.g.: soot concentration). It allows evaluating the need to replace the product in order not to detect equipment and materials.

Standard test method for corrosiveness to copper from petroleum products by copper strip test (ASTM D130-18), determination of corrosion by the copper blade

DESCRIPTION

Determine the degree of corrosively to copper of samples of petroleum products (for example lubricating oils) containing a steam pressure of not more than 124 kPa (18 psi) at 37.8 ° C.

 
ADVANTAGES

It allows for an accelerated ageing process to verify the presence of metal oils damage equipment or materials by oxidation-reduction reaction.