FUEL OIL

Apparent density @15ºC (ASTM D1298)

DESCRIPTION

It consists of a quick and non-destructive method for determining the amount of matter that is present per unit of volume.

 
ADVANTAGES

This test enables the determination of the density of any fuel, in the following range of values: 0.85 to 1.05 g/cm3.

Kinematic viscosity @40ºC and 100°C (ISO 3104 and ISO 8217)

DESCRIPTION

The viscosity corresponds to a physical property that characterizes the resistance of a given fluid to flow, as well as the shear deformation. It corresponds to the internal friction in fluids due to intermolecular interactions and this magnitude is generally a function of temperature. In addition to being a function of temperature, in particular, the kinematic viscosity is a function of the specific mass of the product.

 
ADVANTAGES

The present test makes it possible to determine the viscosity of the fuel by using a kinematic viscometer set at a specific temperature (40°C or 100ºC). The test is based on the international standard ISO 3104 and allows the determination of values in the range of 5-700 mm² / s (cSt) using the gauge used.

Nature of the water (fresh or salt water)

DESCRIPTION

A quick method of determining the nature of the water present in the fuel, in particular specifying whether.

 
ADVANTAGES

Neglect the presence of salts present in the water that lead later to phenomena like corrosion or degradation of materials.

Determination of water content by the petroleum column method

DESCRIPTION

The water content of a fuel is determined in order to minimize the possibility of corrosion problems, especially in cases where the sulphur content is high, as well as to avoid influences on the calorific value of the fuel. Water increases the possibility of formation of emulsions which can cause problems in the nebulization of the product.

 
ADVANTAGES

A quick method for quantification of the water content in the sample (on a scale from 0 to 1 v/v%).

Determination of TAN or TBN value (ASTM D974)

DESCRIPTION

Determination of acid or basic constituents in fuel samples. It is applicable for the determination of acids or bases whose dissociation constants in water are greater than 10-9.

 
ADVANTAGES

A quick method of determining the level of acidity/basicity of the fuel.

Flash point and fire point determination in open cup (ASTM D92)

DESCRIPTION

The flash point corresponds to the lowest temperature at which a fuel releases enough steam to form a flammable mixture from an external source of heat. It is not sufficient for combustion to be maintained. In turn, the combustion point is the lowest temperature at which the steam of fuel will continue to burn for at least 5 seconds after ignition by an open flame.

 
ADVANTAGES

Determine the flash point and fire point of a fuel sample using the open cup method (according to international standard). It assesses the range of applicability (combustion) of the fuel and assesses its danger.

Asphaltenes content (Reference Spot Test)

DESCRIPTION

Asphaltenes are heavy petroleum aromatic compounds with higher boiling points. They are formed by aromatic rings, having paraffin-like chains and high polarity. These compounds can cause serious problems during the production of fuel. These problems include the formation of organic deposits in reservoirs and runoff lines, changes in rock wettability and the formation and stabilization of emulsions.

 
ADVANTAGES

A quick method of quantifying the content of these compounds by comparison with standard charts.

Determination of carbon aromatic index (CCAI) (ISO 8217)

DESCRIPTION

Estimation of CCAI value based on the knowledge of several fuel properties.

 
ADVANTAGES

It allows to avoid the use of fuels non-characteristic kinematic viscosities and apparent density. Provides information about the ignition delay of the fuel.

Determination of compatibility of fuel oil mixtures (ASTM D2781)

DESCRIPTION

Determination of the degree of compatibility of a mixture of a different fuel oil types.

 
ADVANTAGES

This is a good (expeditious and portable) way of measuring the compatibility of marine fuels, including waste and distillate fuel.

Standard test method for corrosiveness to copper from petroleum products by copper strip test (ASTM D130-18)

DESCRIPTION

Determine the degree of corrosiveness to copper of samples of petroleum products containing a steam pressure of not more than 124 kPa (18 psi) at 37.8 ° C.

 
ADVANTAGES

It allows for an accelerated ageing process to verify the presence in metal fuel damage equipment or materials by oxidation-reduction reaction.

Qualitative analysis for active sulphur species by doctor test (ASTM D4952)

DESCRIPTION

Qualitative method to determine the presence of sulphur compounds in fuel samples.

 
ADVANTAGES

Method for determination of sulphur species present in the samples.

Determination of total sediment content by hot filtration (ISO 10307 - part 1)

DESCRIPTION

Method for determination of total sediments in fuel samples having a maximum viscosity of 55 mm²/sat at 100ºC or for mixtures of distillates containing residues.

 
ADVANTAGES

It allows to determine accurately (gravimetric method after vacuum filtration), the content of insoluble organic material or inorganic material up to a range of 0,50 wt% for residual fuel or 0,40% for distillates.

OILS

Apparent density @15ºC and 50ºC (ASTM D1298)

DESCRIPTION

It consists of an expedition and a quick method for determining the amount of matter that is present per unit of vol.

 
ADVANTAGES

This test enables the determination of the density of any oil type, in the following range of values: 0.85 to 1.05 g/cm³.

Kinematic viscosity @40ºC and 100ºC (ISO 3104 and ISO 8217)

DESCRIPTION

Viscosity corresponds to a physical property that characterizes the resistance of a given fluid to flow, as well as the shear deformation. It corresponds to the internal friction in the fluids due to intermolecular interactions and this magnitude is generally a function of temperature. In addition to being a function of temperature, in particular, the kinematic viscosity is a function of the specific mass of the product.

 
ADVANTAGES

The present test makes it possible to determine the viscosity of the oil by using a kinematic viscometer set at a specific temperature (40°C or 100ºC). The test is based on international standard ISO 3104 and allows the determination of values in the range of 5-700 mm²/s (cSt) using the gauge used.

Viscosity index from kinematic viscosity at 40ºC and 100°C

DESCRIPTION

The viscosity index is a widely used and accepted measure of the variation in kinematic viscosity due to changes in the temperature of a petroleum product between 40ºC and 100°C. A higher viscosity index indicates a smaller decrease in kinematic viscosity with increasing temperature of the lubricant. The viscosity index is used in practice as a single number indicating temperature dependence of kinematic viscosity.

 
ADVANTAGES

From experimental data, it is able to quickly understand the tribological behaviour of the oil.

Determination of water content by the petroleum column method

DESCRIPTION

The water content of oil is determined in order to minimize the possibility of corrosion problems, especially in cases where the sulphur content is high, as well as to avoid influences on the calorific value of the oil. Water increases the possibility of formation of emulsions which can cause problems in the nebulization of the product.

 
ADVANTAGES

A quick method that allows accurate quantification of the water content (on a scale from 0 to 1 v/v%).

Determination of TAN or TBN value (ASTM D974)

DESCRIPTION

Determination of acid or basic constituents in oil samples. It is applicable for the determination of acids or bases whose dissociation constants in water are greater than 10-9.

 
ADVANTAGES

A quick method of determining the level of acidity/basicity of the oil.

Insoluble content and degree of dispersion (Reference Spot Test)

DESCRIPTION

Determination of the fraction of insoluble matter present in the sample of oil under study by comparison with reference letters.

 
ADVANTAGES

It allows for an expeditious determination of the level of contamination of insoluble present in the sample, as well as the degree of dispersion of the samples (e.g.: soot concentration). It allows evaluating the need to replace the product in order not to affect equipment and materials.

Flashpoint and fire point determination in open cup (ASTM D92)

DESCRIPTION

The flash point corresponds to the lowest temperature at which a fuel releases enough steam to form a flammable mixture from an external source of heat. It is not sufficient for combustion to be maintained. In turn, the combustion point is the lowest temperature at which the steam on oil will continue to burn for at least 5 seconds after ignition by an open flame.

 
ADVANTAGES

Determine the flash point and fire point of a fuel sample using the open cup method (according to international standard). It assesses the range of applicability (combustion) of the oil and assesses its danger.

Standard test method for corrosiveness to copper from petroleum products by copper strip test (ASTM D130-18)

DESCRIPTION

Determine the degree of corrosiveness to copper of samples of petroleum products (for example lubricating oils) containing a steam pressure of not more than 124 kPa (18 psi) at 37.8°C.

 
ADVANTAGES

It allows for an accelerated ageing process to verify the presence in metal fuels damage equipment or materials by oxidation-reduction reaction.