LNG – LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS
LNG – Liquefied Natural Gas is natural gas cooled to -162ºC or less, liquefied for transportation and storage purposes. When liquefied it occupies 600 times less space than gas, resulting in less storage and transportation costs.
Natural gas is primarily methane, with low concentrations of other hydrocarbons, water, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, oxygen and some sulphur compounds. It is the cleanest burning fossil fuel, therefore producing fewer emissions and pollutants than either coal or oil.
Molecular weight: 16.0425g
Density 6.67151E-4 kg/m3 at 20°C
Boiling point -161.48°C
THE EMISSIONS ISSUES
If everybody agrees that SOx and NOx are harmful to Nature, only a few recognize that Particulate Matter is worse, in particular, the PM10.
It is estimated that health costs in Europe, due to the contribution of pollutant emissions from Shipping, will increase from 7% in 2000 (i.e. € 58.4 billion) to 12% in 2020, reaching a value of about € 64.1 billion.
LNG can be a nearly perfect fuel for maritime transportation regarding the NOx, SOx and PM emissions restrictions:
|Natural Gas||2.7500 Ton CO2/Ton LNG||48.75 MJ/kg|
|HFO (RME-RMK)||3.1151 Ton CO2/Ton HFO||41.20 MJ/kg|
|Diesel Gasoil (MGO)||3.2060 Ton CO2/Ton MGO||42.20 MJ /kg|
|Methanol||1.3865 Ton CO2 /Ton CH3OH||20.10 MJ/kg|
|Hydrogen||0000 Ton CO2/ Ton H2||0. 120.00 MJ/kg|
LNG VALUE CHAIN
- Low costs when compared to coal, oil, diesel and gasoline;
- Less emissions;
- It is a multi-purpose fuel, not only for transportation but also for domestic and industrial usage;.
- Large energy inputs for liquefaction and regasification, and the whole process releases GHG;
- It has the risks of explosion and damage in case of spill, although the risks are smaller than other fossil fuels;
- LNG projects require large upfront capital investment.
THE TECNOVERITAS RELATIONSHIP WITH LNG
TecnoVeritas has an LNG expert team with a great experience in projects such as engine conversion to run on Natural Gas (check VTEC) or LNG terminals feasibility studies.