Full Test Pack

 

Full Pack for Fuel/Oils Analysis

 
LabTecno has the appropriate facilities and equipment to carry out fuel and oil characterization tests. To learn more about the sample submission process click here.
 
The types of product available for the performance of the tests:
  • HFO (Fuel oil)
  • Diesel fuel (Road: GO; Marine: MGO, MDO)
  • Petrol/Gasoline
  • Oils (lubricants; hydraulic)
 
The tests marked with a 🡄 are tests in the accreditation process and under evaluation by IPAC (ISO 17025).
Determination of density at 15ºC 🡄

ASTM D7777

Description: to determine the density of a sample of fuel oil at 15ºC using a portable digital density meter.

Advantages: Test in the accreditation process and under evaluation by IPAC (ISO 17025 accreditation). Results with high precision (to the nearest 1 kg/m3).


Sulphur in Petroleum and Petroleum Products by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry 🡄

ASTM D4294

Description: allows sulphur determination in a fuel, using a portable equipment. A portion of sample is placed inside the equipment, which emits an x-ray beam originated from a sealed radioactive source, and the amount of sulphur content is automatically calculated by the device and expressed in %(w/w) or mg/kg.

Advantages: It is a clean and fast test that requires only a small amount of test sample. Test in the accreditation process and under evaluation by IPAC (ISO 17025 accreditation). High operability range: 0,01 to 5,00 %(w/w).


Water in Petroleum Products and Bituminous Materials by Distillation 🡄

ASTM D95

Description: allows the determination of water content between 0 and 25 %(V/w) by distillation of heavy petroleum products and other bituminous material.

Advantages: it is a classic method, easy to execute that allows to accurately quantify the amount of water present in a sample. Test in the accreditation process and under evaluation by IPAC (ISO 17025 accreditation)


Determination of ash in petroleum products 🡄

ISO 6245

Description: ash content consists of the inorganic residue (Va, Na, Ca, Mg, Zn, Pb, Fe, Ni) that remains after combustion of a sample in the presence of air at high temperature. These residues can occur naturally or can result from refining, or contamination during the stages of storage or distribution. This test consists of burning a small amount of sample in a controlled atmosphere, which will result in a quantifiable residue.

Advantages: it’s a gravimetric method that estimates the tendency of the material to form sediments. Test in the accreditation process and under evaluation by IPAC (ISO 17025 accreditation)


Kinematic viscosity at 50ºC and 100ºC

Internal Test Method

Description: viscosity corresponds to a physical property that characterizes the resistance of a given fluid to flow, as well as shear deformation. This property varies with temperature. During the test the flow of the fluid is measured, as a function of time.

Advantages: it is a simple and effective method for products with higher viscosity. It allows the determination of the kinematic viscosity at a defined temperature.


Flash Point by Pensky-Martens Closed Cup Tester

ASTM D93

Description: during the test, a sample is subjected to progressive heating, being regularly exposed to a flame. The flash point will correspond to the lowest temperature at which the sample releases enough steam to form a flammable mixture. The measurement is made using semi-automatic Pensky-Martens equipment.

Advantages: it allows to evaluate the applicability range (combustion) of the fuel and to evaluate its danger.


Total sediment in residual fuel oils — Determination by hot filtration

ISO 10307 – Part 1

Description: method to determine total sediment in residual fuel with a maximum viscosity of 55 mm2/s at 100ºC. This test determines, by gravimetric method, after vacuum filtration, the content of insoluble organic material or inorganic material up to a range of 0,50 %(w/w) for residual fuel.

Advantages: it allows to rigorously evaluate the contamination of a sample with insoluble inorganic and organic material.


Corrosiveness to Copper from Petroleum Products by Copper Strip Test

ASTM D130

Description: determines the degree of corrosiveness to copper of petroleum products containing a vapour pressure not exceeding 124 kPa (18 psi) at 37,8ºC.

Advantages: it allows, through an accelerated ageing process (oxidation-reduction reaction), to check if the fuel causes damage to equipment or materials.


X-ray fluorescence spectrometry: Monitoring the presence of metals and elements

Internal Test Method

Description: this test method can monitor the presence of wear metals (for example V, Ni, Na, Ca), present in samples of petroleum products by the X-ray Fluorescence (FRX) technique. A portion of sample is placed inside the equipment, which emits an x-ray beam originated from a sealed radioactive source, and the amount of sulphur content is automatically calculated by the device and expressed in mg/kg.

Advantages: allows a quick monitoring of the presence of metals and elements in the sample. To the end user, it will allow greater control over the product’s characteristics to identify equipment degradation and reducing maintenance costs.


Calculated Carbon Aromaticity Index (CCAI)

ISO 8217

Description: CCAI is determined based on the knowledge of some fuel properties (tested density and kinematic viscosity).

Advantages: it avoids the use of fuels with uncharacteristic viscosity and density relationships. Provides information about the ignition quality of the fuel.


Asphaltene Content (Reference Spot Test)

Internal Test Method

Description: asphaltenes are heavier aromatic compounds of petroleum that have a higher boiling point. These compounds can cause serious problems during petroleum production, which include: formation of organic deposits in the reservoirs and flow lines and stabilization of emulations.

Advantages: easy and quick method to quantify the content of these compounds.


Cleanliness and Compatibility of Residual Fuels by Spot Test

ASTM D4740

Description: analysis of the degree of compatibility between a fuel oil sample and a reference blend stock sample.

Advantages: it allows in 2 quick procedures to determine the presence of suspended solids and the degree of compatibility of the sample if combined with mixtures containing residual fuel distillates.


Determination of Net Specific Energy and Gross Specific Energy

ISO 8217

Description: specific energy corresponds to the amount of heat per unit of mass (or volume, in the case of gases) released during combustion of a given fuel. The higher value, the greater the energy contained in the fuel.

Advantages: it allows to determine the combustion power of fuel and its applicability.


Determination of Catalytic Fines in Fuel Oil

Internal Test Method

Description: Catalytic fines are responsible for many of the wear problems that occur in engines. They are tiny particles of contaminants that are created by the catalytic cracking process. They are formed by aluminium and silicon, which are used as catalysts in the refining processes, some of which are transported to the final product.

Advantages: a quick monitoring of these compounds can provide information about the wear of the equipment and to allow an evaluation regarding maintenance in order to prolong its use.


Free Water and Particulate Contamination in Distillate Fuels (Visual Inspection Procedures)

ASTM D4176

Description: visual test to evaluate the presence of free suspended water and contamination by solid particles in distilled fuels.

Advantages: Two test methods are used to determine the contamination of a sample. It is a rapid test to assess the presence or absence of water and particulate matter.


Determination of density at 15ºC

ASTM D7777

Description: to determine the density of a sample of fuel at 15ºC using a portable digital density meter.

Advantages: Results with high precision (to the nearest 1 kg/m3).


Sulphur in Petroleum and Petroleum Products by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry

ASTM D4294

Description: allows sulphur determination in a fuel, using a portable equipment. A portion of sample is placed inside the equipment, which emits an x-ray beam originated from a sealed radioactive source, and the amount of sulphur content is automatically calculated by the device and expressed in %(w/w) or mg/kg.

Advantages: It is a clean and fast test that requires only a small amount of test sample. High operability range: 0,01 to 5,00 %(w/w).


Determination of ash in petroleum products

ISO 6245

Description: ash content consists of the inorganic residue (Va, Na, Ca, Mg, Zn, Pb, Fe, Ni) that remains after combustion of a sample in the presence of air at high temperature. These residues can occur naturally or can result from refining, or contamination during the stages of storage or distribution. This test consists of burning a small amount of sample in a controlled atmosphere, which will result in a quantifiable residue.

Advantages: it’s a gravimetric method that estimates the tendency of the material to form sediments.


Flash Point by Pensky-Martens Closed Cup Tester

ASTM D93

Description: during the test, a sample is subjected to progressive heating, being regularly exposed to a flame. The flash point will correspond to the lowest temperature at which the sample releases enough steam to form a flammable mixture. The measurement is made using semi-automatic Pensky-Martens equipment.

Advantages: it allows to evaluate the applicability range (combustion) of the fuel and to evaluate its danger.


Determination of water content by the petroleum column method

Internal Test Method

Description: allows the determination of the water content in a range between 0 and 1 %(V/V) in distilled fuels and oils. The water content is visualised by loss of pressure in the oil column due to the release of hydrogen by reaction of a drying agent with the water present in the sample.

Advantages: Rapid method that allows the quantitative determination of water content of a sample.


Kinematic viscosity at 40ºC using Cannon-Fenske viscometers

ASTM D445 / ISO 3104

Description: viscosity corresponds to a physical property that characterizes the resistance of a given fluid to flow, as well as shear deformation. This property varies with temperature. During the test, a Cannon-Fenske viscometer is charged with a sample and is put in a thermostatic oil bath at 40ºC. As the sample flows through the Cannon-Fenske viscometer, the time is measured in order to calculate the kinematic viscosity.

Advantages: it is a test that determines the kinematic viscosity at a defined and stable temperature. The test uses international standards (ISO or ASTM) that allow the determination of values within a range of 5 to 700 mm2/s (cSt).


Total Contamination

EN 12662

Description: method of quantitative determination of insoluble substances in diesel up to 30 %(V/V). A certain amount of sample is vacuum filtered through a membrane and the resulting deposit is weighed.

Advantages: it allows to evaluate the contamination of a diesel sample with insoluble substances that can, when too much, plug the fuel system filters and other small orifice components.


Corrosiveness to Copper from Petroleum Products by Copper Strip Test

ASTM D130

Description: determines the degree of corrosiveness to copper of petroleum products containing a vapour pressure not exceeding 124 kPa (18 psi) at 37,8ºC.

Advantages: it allows, through an accelerated ageing process (oxidation-reduction reaction), to check if the fuel causes damage to equipment or materials.


X-ray fluorescence spectrometry: Monitoring the presence of metals and elements

Internal Test Method

Description: this test method can monitor the presence of wear metals (for example V, Ni, Na, Ca), present in samples of petroleum products by the X-ray Fluorescence (FRX) technique. A portion of sample is placed inside the equipment, which emits an x-ray beam originated from a sealed radioactive source, and the amount of sulphur content is automatically calculated by the device and expressed in mg/kg.

Advantages: allows quick monitoring of the presence of metals and elements in the sample. To the end-user, it will allow greater control over the product’s characteristics to identify equipment degradation and reducing maintenance costs.


Determination of Net Specific Energy and Gross Specific Energy

ISO 8217

Description: specific energy corresponds to the amount of heat per unit of mass (or volume, in the case of gases) released during combustion of a given fuel. The higher value, the greater the energy contained in the fuel.

Advantages: to determine the combustion power of fuel and its applicability.


Free Water and Particulate Contamination in Distillate Fuels and Colour (Visual Inspection Procedures)

ASTM D4176

Description: visual test to evaluate the presence of free suspended water and contamination by solid particles in distilled fuels and to evaluate the colour of the sample.

Advantages: Two test methods are used to determine the contamination of a sample. It is a rapid test to assess the presence or absence of water and particulate matter. Also, it is a fast method for evaluating the indicative colour of the octane index.


Determination of density at 15ºC

ASTM D7777

Description: to determine the density of a sample of fuel at 15ºC using a portable digital density meter.

Advantages: Results with high precision (to the nearest 1 kg/m3).


Sulphur in Petroleum and Petroleum Products by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry

ASTM D4294

Description: allows sulphur determination in a fuel, using a portable equipment. A portion of sample is placed inside the equipment, which emits an x-ray beam originated from a sealed radioactive source, and the amount of sulphur content is automatically calculated by the device and expressed in %(w/w) or mg/kg.

Advantages: It is a clean and fast test that requires only a small amount of test sample. High operability range: 0,01 to 5,00 %(w/w).


Determination of water content by the petroleum column method

Internal Test Method

Description: allows the determination of the water content in a range between 0 and 1 %(V/V) in distilled fuels and oils. The water content is visualised by loss of pressure in the oil column due to the release of hydrogen by reaction of a drying agent with the water present in the sample.

Advantages: Rapid method that allows the quantitative determination of water content of a sample.


Corrosiveness to Copper from Petroleum Products by Copper Strip Test

ASTM D130

Description: determines the degree of corrosiveness to copper of petroleum products containing a vapour pressure not exceeding 124 kPa (18 psi) at 37,8ºC.

Advantages: it allows, through an accelerated ageing process (oxidation-reduction reaction), to check if the fuel causes damage to equipment or materials.


X-ray fluorescence spectrometry: Monitoring the presence of metals and elements

Internal Test Method

Description: this test method can monitor the presence of wear metals (for example V, Ni, Na, Ca), present in samples of petroleum products by the X-ray Fluorescence (FRX) technique. A portion of sample is placed inside the equipment, which emits an x-ray beam originated from a sealed radioactive source, and the amount of sulphur content is automatically calculated by the device and expressed in mg/kg.

Advantages: allows a quick monitoring of the presence of metals and elements in the sample. To the end user, it will allow greater control over the product’s characteristics to identify equipment degradation and reducing maintenance costs.


Determination of density at 15ºC

ASTM D7777

Description: to determine the density of a sample of oil at 15ºC using a portable digital density meter.

Advantages: Results with high precision (to the nearest 1 kg/m3).


Sulphur in Petroleum and Petroleum Products by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry

ASTM D4294

Description: allows sulphur determination in a fuel, using a portable equipment. A portion of sample is placed inside the equipment, which emits an x-ray beam originated from a sealed radioactive source, and the amount of sulphur content is automatically calculated by the device and expressed in %(w/w) or mg/kg.

Advantages: It is a clean and fast test that requires only a small amount of test sample. High operability range: 0,01 to 5,00 %(w/w).


Flash Point by Pensky-Martens Closed Cup Tester

ASTM D93

Description: during the test, a sample is subjected to progressive heating, being regularly exposed to a flame. The flash point will correspond to the lowest temperature at which the sample releases enough steam to form a flammable mixture. The measurement is made using semi-automatic Pensky-Martens equipment.

Advantages: it allows to evaluate the applicability range (combustion) of the fuel and to evaluate its danger.


Determination of water content by the petroleum column method

Internal Test Method

Description: allows the determination of the water content in a range between 0 and 1 %(V/V) in distilled fuels and oils. The water content is visualised by loss of pressure in the oil column due to the release of hydrogen by reaction of a drying agent with the water present in the sample.

Advantages: Rapid method that allows the quantitative determination of water content of a sample.


Kinematic viscosity at 40ºC and 100ºC

Internal Test Method

Description: viscosity corresponds to a physical property that characterizes the resistance of a given fluid to flow, as well as shear deformation. This property varies with temperature. During the test the flow of the fluid is measured, as a function of time.

Advantages: it is a simple and effective method for products with higher viscosity. It allows the determination of the kinematic viscosity at a defined temperature.


Calculating Viscosity Index from Kinematic Viscosity at 40ºC and 100°C

ASTM D2270

Description: The viscosity index (IV) is used to measure the variation of the kinematic viscosity due to changes in the temperature of a petroleum product between 40ºC and 100ºC. A higher viscosity index indicates less variation in the kinematic viscosity of an oil with increasing temperature.

Advantages: With experimental data, it makes it possible to quickly understand the behaviour of oil.


Determination of the content of sulphated ash in lubricating oil and additives

ASTM D874

Description: The method of determining the content of sulphated ash is a quantitative measure used to indicate the concentration of metal-containing additives (mainly Sn, Na, K, Zn, Mg, Ca and Ba) that form the ashes in lubricating oils. It consists of a procedure to determine the amount of residue that remains after burning a sample, in the presence of sulphuric acid.

Advantages: it’s a gravimetric method that estimates the tendency of the material to form sediments.


Acid and Base Number by Colour-Indicator Titration

ASTM D974

Description: determination of acidic or basic constituents in fuels and oils, such as additives or degradation products (e.g. oxidation products). These compounds can be determined by titration as acids or bases. It is applicable for the determination of acids or bases whose dissociation constants in water are greater than 10-9.

Advantages: easy method to determine the level of acidity/ basicity of fuel, with few resources required.


X-ray fluorescence spectrometry: Monitoring the presence of metals and elements

Internal Test Method

Description: this test method can monitor the presence of wear metals (for example V, Ni, Na, Ca), present in samples of petroleum products by the X-ray Fluorescence (FRX) technique. A portion of sample is placed inside the equipment, which emits an x-ray beam originated from a sealed radioactive source, and the amount of sulphur content is automatically calculated by the device and expressed in mg/kg.

Advantages: allows a quick monitoring of the presence of metals and elements in the sample. To the end user, it will allow greater control over the product’s characteristics to identify equipment degradation and reducing maintenance costs.


Insoluble content and degree of dispersion (Reference Spot Test)

Internal Test Method

Description: determination of the fraction of insoluble matter present in the oil sample by comparison with a reference chart. It also allows evaluating the degree of dilution of diesel present in the oil.

Advantages: it allows a quick determination of the level of contamination by insoluble matter in the sample, as well as the degree of dispersion (e.g. soot concentration). It allows assessing the need to replace the oil in order to not damage equipment and materials.


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